Common Printed Circuit Board Defects

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There are a number of inspection tools that were invented for the task of inspecting printed circuit board assembly. On the inner layer of the PCB assembly, the automatic optical inspection is applied just before the printed circuit board will be laminated.

After it is laminated, to ensure that the layers are aligned properly and there are no minor defects, an x-ray monitoring system will be used to scan through the PCB assembly.A laser scan will also be run onto the printed circuit board assembly. These methods and scanning procedures along with a visual inspection are made to ensure the preciseness of the PCB assembly.

Printed Circuit Boards

However, there are times when even though all the necessary procedures to make a printed circuit board assembly are made, the final inspection of the printed circuit board will still be invaluable. The final inspection is considered as the most critical of all the procedures.

This process is executed in two ways simultaneously:

The manual and automatic methods. In the manual method, an inspector will be checking the completed printed circuit board and will judge whether there is a defect on the printed circuit board or not. For the automatic method, an automatic scanning system will be run onto the printed circuit board to spot any defect.

If a printed circuit board does not conform to the requirements or parameters, then it is considered as a defective one. Defects are classified depending on their degree or their severity and their effects to the performance of the printed circuit board.

One of the most common defects that affect a printed circuit board assembly is the wave soldering defect. Wave soldering is a soldering process where the electronic components are soldered to the board using a tank with molten solder. The electronic components are inserted on the printed circuit board.

The loaded printed circuit board will then pass through a waterfall of solder which will moisten the exposed metallic parts of the device.

However, although this process is faster and provides high quality printed circuit boards compared to the manual process of soldering the electronic components, it can result to many different soldering defects such as the ones mentioned below:

• Bulbous joint

• Pin/Blow hole

• Lifted component

• Cracked joint

• Poor hole fill

• Flux residue

• Joint contamination

• Incomplete joint

• Lifted resist

• Lifted pads

• Pad contamination

• Poor solder ability

• Outgassing

• Solder ball

• Poor penetration

• Solder flags

• Sunken joint

• Solder skip

• Solder shorts

• Mask discoloration

Another common failure of a printed circuit board is an open circuit, which may be caused by a lot of different factors such as physical stress and poor quality control. A printed circuit board exposed to any vehicle may cause its electronic connection to either wear down or break down entirely. A low quality printed circuit board with a malformed vias or poor soldering work is a result of poor quality control during the processes of manufacturing and assembling.

Pcb AssemblyTo prevent these defects from happening, a visual inspection conducted on a regular basis is very important. The inspection should be conducted along with an x-ray imaging system to know where exactly the defective parts of the printed circuit board are. If the location of the defect is hard to detect, then a specialized process such as the Time Domain Reflectometry is used.

In performing a printed circuit board analysis, it is important to have a full understanding of the common printed circuit board defects. For most companies manufacturing printed circuit boards, it is essential to have people with extensive background and practice in the printed circuit board technology to be able to find the errors in a defective PCB assembly.

Challengecoins4less Teaches you the Tradition of the Challenge Coins

Challengecoins4less has been working for several organizations for years. We’ve been making custom coins of different sizes and styles for different purposes. For this reason, we’ve seen how our custom coins are used by different individuals who received them. We are honoured to see that our coins have been treasured by people belonging to different organizations.

Seeing the custom coins that we produce as symbols of achievements and awards is just one of the reasons why we, at Challengecoins4less, are inspired to make them for you. However, some people may not know why challenge coins are used in such way, and the other things that you can do with them.

The Tradition of the Challenge

The reason why challenge coins are called that way is because these are commonly used to perform the traditional challenge among the members of an organization. The general rule of the challenge is to show your coin once being challenged. Failure to do so requires you to buy your challenger a drink.

Challenge CoinsIt is said that this tradition started when a young flying squadron was saved from a death sentence by a custom coin given to him by his superior. The tradition started after he went back to his squadron to ensure that all the members would always carry their coins with them.

Another story tells that the challenge began after the World War II in Germany. It is the time when American soldiers often did the pfennig check. Pfennig was the lowest money denomination in Germany during that time. If you’re challenged, you need to produce a pfennig or you will end up buying beers for the challenger.

The use of pfennig as a coin for the challenge has evolved to challenge coins.  

There’s also another story stating that bullets were used before these evolved into custom coins. It happened during the Vietnam Era, wherein the groups called bullet clubs performed the challenge.
During that time, one of the soldiers’ favourite pastimes was to drink at the bar. To get rid of boredom, bullet clubs were formed. The members would always carry a personalized bullet with them. Each member can initiate the challenge. Once the challenge was initiated, the person who was being challenged needed to show his personalized bullet, or else he would buy his challenger a drink for the rest of the evening.

However, some cheaters would use bullets that were not personalized, for the challenge, that’s why the use of bullets to do the tradition has evolved to the use of customized coins.

Custom Coins

The Rules of Challenge Coins

There are rules in performing the traditional coin challenge. The most common rule is to initiate it among the members of an organization.

Challengecoins4less is often asked to design coins for different organizations to symbolize membership and boost a member’s morale. That is why it’s commonly forbidden to initiate the challenge to those who are not part of the organization.

  1. The goal of the challenge coins is to ensure that the members should always carry these with them at all times.
  2. The challenger should say, “Coin check” out loud for the other members to hear. Some rules state that the challenger should make it clear if the prize is for a single drink or for a round of drinks.
  3. The person being challenged should produce a coin. Some rules allow the passing of the coin, which means that sometimes, it’s allowed to pass a coin to the person being challenged if he doesn’t have his coin with him.  If the one being challenged can produce a coin, the challenger should buy a single drink or a round of drinks to the offender. If the offender fails to produce a coin, the offender will buy a single drink or a round of drinks for the challenger.
  4. The customized coins used for the challenge must not be deformed or mutilated. Defaced coins are not allowed, as well as for the coins with a hole on them.

Challengecoins4less has always been a part of this tradition for years. We’ve been producing high quality coins that last several traditions and challenges.

Patches4less Provides Best Custom Embroidered Patches

Embroidered patches can be attached onto any kind of clothing or fabric material. The most common materials to which embroidered patches are typically attached include shirts, pants, jackets, and bags. These patch not only gives artistry and design, but it also helps in showing to other people your membership in a certain group.

By wearing a uniform with an embroidered patch, the other people will surely notice the symbol or design of the patch. It may be a logo of your school or company. In short, patches help inform others that you belong in a particular organization or institution, without talking even about it.

If you are planning to order or purchase embroidered patches, you must know that it can be customized. Customization means that you have the right to make your own design, and the company will make a product based on what you have made. The custom embroidered patches come in different sizes, designs, kinds, colors, as well as prices. The company who makes custom embroidered patches will base their products according to the needs of their clients.

In picking the right company that makes custom embroidered patches, there are several things to consider. Among all of the factors to be deliberated, the first one and in the top priority is the quality of their products. All customers or clients want high quality products and services from sellers. If the quality of the product is good and if it satisfies the needs of the clients, the latter will surely avail more of it. High quality patches consist of good materials like backings, as well as the thread color that have been used.

The is one of the companies you may consider –

We are experts and professionals in making embroidered patches.  We have high quality materials used in making embroidered patches. We guarantee our clients that our products and services are high quality and come at an affordable price.

Custom Patche

Another thing you may consider in picking the right company that will make custom embroidered patches is their offered price. Most of the people want a high quality yet affordable product. If the price is high, though the quality of the product is good, the people will still choose the product that is inexpensive – even if it does not contain high quality materials. It is better to choose the company that both provide solution to their clients. The high quality and low price must always be together. The company is in demand if they combined these two together. You can research the typical prices of the embroidered patches, so you will have a basis of how much you will have to purchase to a specific company. offers inexpensive prices of custom patches –

We want our clients to fit their budget into the products we can provide. The detailed prices of our embroidered patches are all listed in our website. But, if you have more concerns and questions, we can easily give you a solution. Just contact us and we will surely accommodate all of your inquiries.

The other services the company or patch maker can provide are also relevant. These additional services may include the free charges on certain things like designing the patch and shipping. You can have less expenses if the company you will choose offers free shipping, and if they can also make your suggested design.


With, we give free charges on artwork and design –

Embroidered PatchWe can make it for you, but we will first ask your desired design, so we can make a virtual proof of your patch. The virtual proof is alike to the final product of the embroidered patch. You can make suggestions if in case there are some things you want to change in the design. We also provide free shipping within the continental USA via FedEx. You can also choose from our thread colors.

The reputation of the company is also important. You can look for some reviews about the company’s background, and feed backs from the people who have already purchased into their services. You must focus on the positive sides of the reviews and comments.

Custom embroidered patches are not only about the customized product, but you are also required to pick the company that can accommodate all of your needs and desires. Consider these factors and you will surely encounter the company that can give you the best solution.


 Author Bio

If you are looking for iron on patches with affordable price, so you can must visit our website We are one of the best custom patches provider.

Organizing Your Golf Bags

Have you ever tried spending time looking for a particular item in your golf bag? You may need to organize your bag. To have a smooth play, it is important that you know where a particular item is placed inside your bag. You shouldn’t just cram everything into your golf bags. It does not only damage your bag but also your golf clubs.

What’s inside a golf bag?

Golf bags usually have a divider to help players organized their golf clubs. Most bags are divided into four sections. Players usually put their long clubs in the back compartment. If you have a ball retriever, then you could put it in the back as well. The middle compartment are for your middle irons. The shortest ones are placed in the front, along with your wedges and putter. Putting your clubs in a descending order will help you see the club heads easier.

Golf AccessoriesSome bags have a section for your putter well. These golf bags has a separate compartment to prevent damage to the other clubs and the putter itself. It is a great feature especially for those who have large putter grips in their golf equipment. If you have this compartment, then you won’t have to put your putter on the front compartment along with your shorter clubs.

Golf bags are equipped with several types of pockets. Some bags even have a dozen pockets for your use. As a rule, you should put the essential stuff, these are items you frequently use, in accessible pockets like the top or front side pockets. Less accessible pockets are for items you only occasionally use in the game like your spare gloves, rule book, and snacks. The least accessible pockets are used for items that are least likely to be used in a game such as your valuables.

Apparel pockets are for your tees or jackets. The valuables pockets are for your cell phone and other valuables like your money or your car keys. This pocket is typically lined with soft fabric or velour. Your golf bag is also equipped with a beverage sleeve or holster to hold your bottled water. Always bring a drink with you to keep you hydrated. Some bags have an insulated cooler pocket that keep your drinks cool throughout your game.

Be sure not to put too much items in your bag pockets as it would damage your bag. Also remember to be mindful of what you put in there. Wet things could bring molds to your bag.

Make sure that the items you put inside your bag are clean and dry.
Rainy day?

Golf BagsYour golf bag usually is equipped with an umbrella holder. Keep an umbrella in your holder at all times. You never know if you’ll need it. Sometimes, the weather forecast could go wrong. Some bags also have a rain hood or other rain protection system to keep your clubs and other equipment dry.

In case you don’t know, there is also a loop, ring, or clip available in your bag. You could hang your towel here for easy access later in the game. You could also use the ring to add additional holders or pockets in your bag. Some people would put tee bags or their sunglasses holder in this loop ring. If you don’t have a view window for your ID, then you could also place your ID tag in the ring provided.

So what are you waiting for?

Organize your golf bags and have an easier time in the golf course. If some features mentioned here aren’t available in your own golf bag, you could adjust your organization of your stuff or buy a new one that has these features. Keep your things organized and you won’t need to look for something for so long again!

Author Bio:
Golf bags usually have a divider to help players organized their golf clubs. Rockbottomgolf have a huge collection of these items that you can buy for incredibly low prices.

So You Want To Become A Motivational Speaker

People often ask us here at what it takes to become a great motivational speaker. They would inquire if there are courses that they need to take or certifications that they need to have before they can be one. They also ask what they can do to make a career out of giving motivational talks.

Before answering these questions, we have a few questions of our own.

1. Do you have the gift of gab and are great at public speaking?

2. Do you have something important to share with other people?

3. Do you feel like you can make a difference in other people’s lives just by giving motivational speeches?

If you answered yes to all these questions then you’re on the right path to becoming a great motivational speaker.

To become a motivational speaker, you don’t have to have a degree or take additional courses. First thing you need to do is pick a topic that you are passionate about. The topic that you choose should be something that you really have a genuine interest in. You have to be truly committed to sharing your thoughts and ideas about the topic you are discussing, so the audience can connect with you.

Motivational SpeakerOften, the most important things that you need to have are the right words. People hire speakers to tell them something unique, something compelling and something they have never known before. They want to listen to somebody who have ideas that can make them go “Aha!” or “God I wish a knew this sooner.” They want to hear someone talk about something that interests them in a manner, which is engaging, informative and entertaining all at the same time. The right words or speech help you become a great speaker, so it is important to take your time in writing your speech. You can also try enrolling in creative writing classes if you feel like your words need work.

The next thing you need to do is to deliver your speech well. To achieve this, you have to practice delivering your speech in front of a mirror or in front of your friends and family. Practice your speech over and over until you get the hang of it. Practice until you feel comfortable saying your speech out loud naturally. If you feel that practicing is not enough, you can enroll in classes that teach presentation skills to improve your craft. It also helps to study other speakers whom you want to emulate.
You need to have a little bit a charisma and a lot of confidence to say your speech well, so make sure to stand tall and speak clearly. Words are great on their own but if you are unable to deliver it properly to your audience then nobody would want to listen to you.

Don’t expect to make money immediately after giving one talk. Many successful motivational speaker started out giving talks for free just to make them feel comfortable talking and to help them practice. They also accept free engagements so they can be seen and known. A lot of other seasoned speakers have said that they have given at least 50-100 free speeches before they got a paid gig. Don’t be discouraged by that number as each speaker is different. Who knows, if you are really a great speaker you may get hired before you even gave your 50th free speech.

Keynote SpeakerFind group or a club, which specializes in giving motivational talks and other speaking engagements. They can help you land clients and help you improve your skills as well. Some speaking groups also offer lessons on how to become a better speaker or lessons on how you can engage your audience effectively for a minimal fee or even for free if you are a member. Take advantage of these offerings.

Lastly, don’t quit your day job just yet. Some well-known speakers may rack up thousands of dollars just for one engagement but they didn’t start out that way. As earlier mentioned, it may take a while before you land yourself a speaking engagement that pays well. Start small and do not charge too much at the beginning. If you are a really good speaker, someone will sooner or later be willing to pay good money just to hear you talk. Wait until you have a steady stream of speaking gigs before quitting your 9-5.

We hope that this article was able to help answer your questions about motivational speaking. You can also visit if you want to know more about us. Good luck on your journey to becoming a motivational speaker.

The Threat of Foreclosure

The threat of foreclosure can go a long way. Not only does this mean losing a well-earned asset in repayment of a debt, this also means tarnishing a person’s credit standing. Unlike those in other countries, the mortgage industry in the United States is considered as a major financial sector.  Before approving loan applications, banks look out for red flags in a person’s credit history. Any defaulted loans and foreclosures, which are well-documented in the country, will work against a person’s favor.

ForeclosureAfter the 2010 Foreclosure crisis which saw thousands of properties foreclosed three years after the 2007 Subprime Mortgage crisis, banking institutions in New York started applying a stricter assessment policy before approving any loan applications. Several other steps, including the introduction of a more flexible payment package for borrowers, have been taken to ensure fewer defaulted debts. Amortizations are patterned to suit borrowers’ monthly income.

Ramifications of Foreclosures

To prevent any future financial crises involving the mortgage industry, the United States federal government instituted several fiscal programs such as the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Government National Mortgage Association (cleverly put as “Fannie Mae” and “Ginnie Mae” respectively). These programs were created to encourage land development and construction, mortgage lending and home ownership.

While most of the country is already on the path of normalcy, several regions have yet to recover from the Foreclosure crisis five years ago. These unfortunately include Long Island of the state of New York. Law firms have been flooded since then with foreclosure cases that they decided to open positions exclusively for a Long island foreclosure lawyer. The number of foreclosure suits are not expected to drop anytime soon and since timing is essential in the resolution of these case, families have been seeking the assistance of experienced lawyers to either stall the proceedings or work out a viable solution for them to pay their dues.

Some Long island families might not fully understand what it means to be given a foreclosure notice or to be summoned by the courts for reply.  It is the job of a Long island foreclosure lawyer to explain the ramifications of foreclosures aside from just losing their property. The lawyer shall extensively discuss the repercussions of not appearing before the court and what other options they can take if they still want to retain the mortgaged property.

Legal Representation

In foreclosure cases, there are several underlying issues that can only be thoroughly explained by a competent lawyer. For instance, a lending company has sent the borrower a foreclosure notice even if he has been religiously complying with the monthly amortization. In a case like this, the payments were not processed because some pertinent documents may be lacking. If it is proven that the company has failed to exercise due diligence in informing the borrower of the lacking documents leading to the non-processing of payments, the borrower is entitled to “damages” or monetary considerations from the lender. This is just an example to illustrate that most foreclosure cases are unique and will thus require the assistance of a trusted Long island foreclosure lawyer.

The threat of foreclosure can have emotional consequences to the family. There is a tendency to worry about the foreseeable future because of the possibility of losing the place they called their own. While it is advised that family finances must be an open discussion among family members, seeking the advice of a lawyer especially when facing a foreclosure suit will serve the family well. Foreclosures do not just liquidate the property; they also destroy a person’s credit standing, making purchasing another property close to impossible. All this can be prevented even by merely asking for legal advice from a Long island foreclosure lawyer.